GWT Gold Sponsor at the ICWS2022


icws22 lyon






Resolis: Two 200m2 horizontal subsurface flow wetlands operated in paralell treating 10m3/d of secondary sewage.

Additional Info

  • In operation since: April 2007
  • Type of wastewater treated: Domestic
  • Type of wastewater (other): Secondary
  • Hydraulic load: 10 m³/day
  • Organic load (PE): 64
  • Organic design load (kg BOD/day): 3.8
  • Location: Resolis, The Black Isle, Scotland, UK
  • Client: Highland Council
  • Stage 1 type: Horizontal sub-surface flow
  • Stage 1 surface area (m²): 400
  • Cost: 55,000
  • Needs:

    The Highland Council constructed a school on the Black Isle near Cullicudden known as Resolis Primary School. Sewage effluent from the school was to pass through a septic tank and secondary treatment system prior to discharging back into the environment via a water course. The discharge consents for the secondary treatment element were not excessive and the council were keen to use as sustainable treatment solution as they could. The table below indicated the predicted flows and loads.





    Upper Tier  consents (mg/l)

    Lower Tier

    consents (mg/l)





    Suspended Solids








    Flow (m3/d)





    There was some land available towards the south of the school beyond the playing field where the septic tank was to be situated.

  • Solution:

    The discharge permit did not specify an ammonia consent and so a two horizontal subsurface flow wetland treatment system was selected as the most technically and economically effective solution at Resolis. The available land dictated that the beds should lie end to end but operate in parallel. A connection was made to the septic tank discharge and a splitter chamber was constructed to divide the flow from the septic tanks equally between the two reed beds. Each bed was 200 m2 totalling 400 m2. The reed bed was to also be an educational resource for the school highlighting the use of sustainable technologies. It was, however, important to provide fencing around the system due to the proximity of the playground to the treatment system. Access to the reed beds was only allowed under close adult supervision.

  • Benefits:

    The reed bed installation at the Resolis Primary School provided the local council with a sustainable, robust treatment solution for the new school and the children attending the school with awareness of the choices between standard and more sustainable technological solutions

Read 4759 times
More in this category: « Earls Colne GIP Kallo »






GWT events @ ICWS2022




7/11  9am  Anacleto Rizzo   (Keynote)

Wetland community expertise in the new Nature-Based Solution and Circular Economy vision: links and new research and design trends


7/11  10.40am  Dion van Oirschot

MULTISOURCE: Aerated wetland treating black and grey water for reuse at campsite Belgium


07/11   11:40am  Heike Hoffman

The potential of the French Wetland System for reuse - Results of a long-term project in the Peruvian arid coast area


7/11  4pm Heike Hoffman

Operational experiences with a sludge treatment wetland as part of a municipal WWTP in Brazil


7/11  4.30pm Fabio Masi

Water Projects Europe: NICE / MULTISOURCE


9/11  2pm Steen Nielsen

Treatment of industrial sludge in a pilot Sludge Treatment Wetland planted with Phragmites australis and Schenoplectus californicus


9/11  2pm Riccardo Bresciani

Reed beds for drying sludge from a winery wastewater treatment plant in Spain: the WETWINE project


9/11   4.40pm  Taxiarchis Seintos

Application of a full-scale UASB and two-stage constructed wetland system for water reclamation and nutrient recycling of domestic wastewater in arid areas


9/11  5pm Simos Malamis

Investigation of the use of different filling materials in unsaturated vertical flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of UASB effluent from domestic wastewater

T. Seintos, E. Statiris, F. Masi, C. Noutsopoulos, S. Malamis


9/11 5pm Scott Wallace

Practical aspects in the determination of first-order removal rate coefficients (k) for horizontal flow treatment wetlands


10/11 11.20am Fabio Masi

Electroactive and intensified pilot-scale constructed wetlands for the treatment of high loads of septic tank effluent


10/11 2.20pm Alain Petitjean

Intensified French Treatment Wetlands - Influence of operating parameters on nitrogen removal


10/11 4pm  Andy Freeman

Treatment of de-icer contaminated runoff at a UK airport using intensified Nature Based Solutions - A 10-year operational performance review



P4: Coupling French Reed Bed and Short Rotation Plantation for developing circular economy of wastewater in India: A case of PAVITR prototype / Anacleto Rizzo

P39: Constructed wetlands for the treatment of combined sewer overflow upstream of centralised wastewater treatment plants / Chiara Sarti